Ground Systems
Don't underestimate the importance of a good ground system!

# Ground Characteristics, Lightning Protection Grounds, Radio Frequency Grounds, and Practical Grounding Systems

Earth characteristics, grounding material characteristics, benefits and practical issues related to grounding systems
• Buried Radial Characteristics of a Buried Radial Wire from DC up to Radio Frequencies The earth electrode system of a radio transmitter using a vertical mast as the radiator consists of a number of buried wires radiating from a common connecting point directly under the antenna. For high efficiency power radiation the effective series resistance looking into the earthing system must be as low as possible. This program models a single isolated radial from DC up to 30 MHz ...
• Counterpoise Behaviour of Coil-Loaded Antenna Counterpoise, or Artificial Ground The primary purpose of this program is to calculate the number of turns on a loading coil of given length and diameter needed to resonate a wire to 1/4-wavelength. The wire length must therefore be less than 1/4-wavelength ...
• Resistance Measurement of Soil Resistivity & Calculation of Earth Electrode Resistance

• Shallow-Buried 2 Choosing Length & Number of Shallow-Buried Radials Version 2 A buried radial is a lossy single-wire transmission line. It has four primary parameters, R,L,C & G. It has secondary parameters: Alpha the attenuation constant and Beta the phase constant closely related to the velocity factor. The characteristic impedance is complex with components Ro and Xo. All these parameters can be estimated from line dimensions of length, wire diameter and burial depth in conjunction with soil resistivity and permittivity ... (See Version 3 below)
• Shallow-Buried 3 Choosing Length & Number of Shallow-Buried Radials Version 3 This is Version 3 of the information and computer program above.
• Soil Skin Skin Depth in the Ground vs. Frequency for Given Soil Characteristics Alternating currents in the ground are attenuated exponentially as depth increases, like Exp(-A*Depth). Where A is an attenuation factor depending on soil resistivity R, permittivity K, and on frequency ...